By Lia Formigari
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Additional info for A History of Language Philosophies (Studies in the History of the Language Sciences)
Spoken sounds signify only in their entirety in the case of individual words (nouns and verbs); they are analyzable in partial meanings in the case of sentences. Only the latter, and not its constitutive terms, can be true or false. I have already referred to the passage in Poetics Chap. XX where Aristotle presents an elaborate taxonomy of the parts of speech. Here, we also have a distinction between parts that convey a meaning and parts that do not. Phonetic parts — letter and syllable — have no semantic import.
Other types of speech (prayer, for example, which is a form of discourse that is neither true nor false) pertain to rhetoric and poetics. , Chap. 2) and the verb (“a sound which not only conveys a particular meaning but has a time-reference also”) are the minimum necessary verbal categories required for a judgment. “They indicate nothing themselves but imply a copulation or synthesis, which we can hardly conceive of apart from the things thus combined” (Chap. 3). They are the only two parts of speech that Aristotle deals with in this work.
Augustine: Baratin & Desbordes 1982; Arens 1990; Munteanu 1999. 1 Problems in naturalism In this chapter, we shall cover the same historical ground of the previous one, but from a diﬀerent angle. Hitherto, we have considered language as a procedure for conceptually elaborating, syntactically organizing and communicating thoughts. We shall now consider speech as an intrinsic aspect of the phylo- and ontogenetic history of humankind, a system in which instinct (nature) and learning (nurture) play an equally crucial role.
A History of Language Philosophies (Studies in the History of the Language Sciences) by Lia Formigari