By Arthur Pehr Robert Wadlund
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Additional info for Absolute X-Ray Wave-Length Measurements
It can be represented as a Fourier series: x(r) = LXH exp (iHr). 3) H Here H are the reciprocallattice vectors of the crystal. 5) n as the structure factor of the crystal unit cell. 6) In many texts, discussing the dynamical theory, the electric displacement field is calculated inside the crystal and not the electric field. This choice is dictated by the purely transverse character of the electric displacement field inside the crystal. However, since the electric field inside the crystal is practically transverse, which is justified by the smallness of x, the distinction between the electric field and the electric displacement field representation inside the crystal in most cases is not essential.
3, and for the practical purposes of designing high-resolution x-ray optics, such as x-ray monochromators and analyzers addressed in Chap. 5 and Chap. 6, respectively. The two-beam-case Bragg reflection in backscattering is rather an exception than the rule. In most cases strong accompanying Bragg reflections can be excited simultaneously. The accompanying reflections can suppress the backscattered beam and thus reduce drastically the crystal reflectivity into the backscattering channel. Multiple-beam diffraction is unfavorable for many applications of Bragg backscattering in x-ray crystal optics.
To obtain a strong enough signal in the det ector, the radiation emerging from the sample in a solid angle of ~ 10 x 10 mrad 2 has to be collected and analyzed. For this purpose, spherically bent crystal a nalyzers or arrays of flat analyzer crystals are applied. Although backscattering from flat crystals is capable of selecting radiation within sub-meV bandwidths, this is however valid only for plane incident radiation waves. Due to the large divergence of t he radiation emerging from the sample, which has to be analyzed, the energy resolution of the crystal analyzer is inferior to the resolution of the backscattering monochromators.
Absolute X-Ray Wave-Length Measurements by Arthur Pehr Robert Wadlund