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Sympathetic nerve stimulation also tends to cause vasoconstriction in the coronary arteries. While the factors noted earlier have the effect of decreasing coronary blood flow, the increase in metabolism (resulting from a higher heart rate and more forceful contraction) more than offsets these factors so that coronary blood flow increases with sympathetic stimulation. Myocardial Oxygen Consumption The heart relies almost entirely on aerobic metabolism. Thus, there is a strong relationship between myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow because the production of ATP for contraction is tightly linked to the supply of oxygen.

5 presents a ventricular function curve with end-diastolic volume (an index of muscle fiber length) on the x-axis and stroke volume (a measure of contractile energy) on the y-axis (other ventricular function curves use ventricular filling pressure on the x-axis and stroke work (SV 3 MAP [mean arterial pressure]) on the y-axis). Preload is determined by the amount of blood in the ventricle; this is a function of venous return and filling time (heart rate, HR). Preload is dependent on venous return of blood and can be affected by any factor that alters venous return.

Ventricular Ejection Period Blood is pumped from the ventricles during the ventricular ejection period of systole. Once the semilunar valves have been forced open by the increasing pressure generated by ventricular contraction, the volume in the ventricles immediately begins to The Heart as a Pump decrease as blood in the ventricles is ejected from the heart. Systolic function is the general term given to the ability of the heart to adequately produce the force needed to eject blood from the ventricle.

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Advanced cardiovascular exercise physiology by Denise L. Smith

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