By Changiz, Ph.D. Mohiyeddini
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Extra resources for Advances in the Psychology of Sport and Exercise
Mental Toughness One question often arises when discussing sport psychology: do elite athletes have higher “mental characteristics” than average people? Mental toughness is a growing concept in sport psychology that tends to answer such a question. The topic received recently a couple of reviews in the sport literature (Crust, 2008; Gucciardi and Gordon, 2011; Gucciardi, Gordon, and Dimmock, 2009a). 1. Definition Gucciardi et al. (2009a) provided this definition of mental toughness: “a collection of values, attitudes, emotions and cognitions that influence the way in which an individual approaches, responds to, and appraises demanding events to consistently achieve his or her goals”.
The participant has to interpret the stimulus, and this interpretation is aimed to provide the psychologist with useful information concerning the personality (Lilienfeld, Lilienfeld, Wood, and Garb, 2000). Examples of such tests are the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Test (Rosenzweig, Fleming, and Rosenzweig, 1948), the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) (H. A. Murray, 1943) and the Rorschach-Test (for recent coding instructions, see Bornstein, 2012). Observation of behaviour: This is a methodological observation of the participant.
2010). Therefore, there is a need to look for long-term effects of personality on sport performance (Aidman and Schofield, 2004), and this is best achieved through the use of longitudinal methodology, rather than a cross-sectional approach. Subsequently, researchers can decide to consider PTLID either in a prospective or “posthoc” fashion when they design their experiments. What we call the prospective way corresponds to the selection of a sample based on PTLID values, for example, according to their high or low score on a trait.
Advances in the Psychology of Sport and Exercise by Changiz, Ph.D. Mohiyeddini