Read e-book online Astronomy 123: galaxies and expanding universe (lecture PDF

By Schombert J.

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The entropy of the whole Universe always increased with time. We are simply a local spot of low entropy and our destiny is linked to the unstoppable increase of disorder in our world => stars will burn out, civilizations will die from lack of power. html (1 of 9) [15-02-2002 22:34:38] entropy Irreversibility: Classical physics is a science upon which our belief in a deterministic, time-reversible description of Nature is based. Classical physics does not include any distinction between the past and the future.

But how can an object have many momentums? Of course, once a measurement of the particle is made, a single momentum is observed. But, like fuzzy position, momentum before the observation is intrinsically uncertain. This is what is know as the uncertainty principle, that certain quantities, such as position, energy and time, are unknown, except by probabilities. html (5 of 7) [15-02-2002 22:34:48] wave-particle duality, uncertainity principle impossible. For example, you can measure the location of an electron, but not its momentum (energy) at the same time.

The unification of electric and magnetic phenomena in a complete mathematical theory was the achievement of the Scottish physicist Maxwell (1850's). In a set of four elegant equations, Maxwell formalized the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. In addition, he showed that a linear magnetic and electric field can be self-reinforcing and must move at a particular velocity, the speed of light. e. self-propagating electromagnetic waves. a. Light): The wavelength of the light determines its characteristics.

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Astronomy 123: galaxies and expanding universe (lecture notes) by Schombert J.


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