By Margareta Nordin
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Additional info for Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System 3rd Edition
CanccllQus_ bone, withstanding greater stress but less strain before falllll·c. C:-1-n~c~ITol-i-s -bolic-rn·-\'itl:-O--~~·~I~-~;jn lip to 50% of strains before yielding. 00/0. sto,~ge (Ke"""ny & Hayes, 1993). ,:·~~~ntin a unit of bon~ \ ~~f11e (gram per cubic ccn-titnctci:Tglcc]):-Frg"Llre depicts typical stress-strain qualities of cortical a trabecular bone with different bone densities tes under similar conditions. In general, it is enough lo describe bone strength with a sin number. A bctter way is to examine the stress-str curve for the bone tissue under the circumstan tested.
A second crack usually fo along the plane or maximal tensile stress. Suc pattern can be seen in the experimentally produ torsional fracture of n canine femur shown in ure 2-31. Tension I ,; Experimentally produced torsional fracture of a c nine femur. The short crack (arrow) parallel to th neutral axis represents shear failure; the fracture at a 30'" angle to the neutral axis represents the plane of maximal tensile stress. Schematic representation of a small segment of bone loaded in torsion. Maximal shear stresses act on planes parallel and perpendicular to the neutral axis.
Y fail in compression. Muscle contraction produces a similar effect in the hip joint (Fig. 2-34). During locomotion, bending moments are applied to the femoral neck and tensile stress is produced on the superior cortex. Contraction of the gluteus medius muscle produces compressive stress that neutralizes this tensile stress, with the net result that neither compressive nor tensile stress acts on the superior cortex. Thus, the muscle contraction allows the femoral neck to sustain higher loads than would otherwise be possible.
Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System 3rd Edition by Margareta Nordin