By Frederick Will
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Additional resources for Beyond Deduction: Ampliative Aspects of Philosophical Reflection
18-49. 28 AMPLIATIVE AND DEDUCTIVE PROCESSES than of concepts. Either of these ways involves some considerable expansion of the accepted usage of the key term chosen. 'Concept' for example, involves the kind of expansion which Toulmin has given it; it involves one embracing so much of our scientific and other cogni tive institutions under this term that it is hard to see what remains to be contrasted with it. Yet 'coQcept' in common philosophical usage is, though not exactly a polar term, one which does strongly suggest a contrast with such items as statements, propositions, theories: items differentiated from concepts in conveying full assertions, claims that are capable of being true or false.
If in place of the community at large and its forms of thought and consciousness, one substitutes a scientific community and its forms of thought and action, and if one subtracts, or discounts some of the broad skeptical conclusions which Kuhn intimates and sometimes draws, one will find in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions a view of the development of scientific consciousness which, though clearly not in inspiration, is in its import strongly Hegelian. The notion of paradigms of scientific thought emphasized in that work is a specialized one, and the influence of these paradigms is treated in relation to only one special class of community, namely, scientific ones.
If it can be shown that achieving a certain result requires substantial deviation, the result, as arrived at in this process, is invalidated, just as a result in ordinary arithmetic would be invalidated if it required for its production a violation of the rules of multiplication. This applicative employment of accepted means is exhibited strikingly in the kinds of scientific research to which Kuhn gave the name of 'puzzle-solving,' that is, research carried on in periods in which what he called 'paradign1s' of theory and practice are deeply entrenched.
Beyond Deduction: Ampliative Aspects of Philosophical Reflection by Frederick Will