By Sabine Maasen, Everett Mendelsohn, Peter Weingart (auth.), Sabine Maasen, Everett Mendelsohn, Peter Weingart (eds.)
not lie within the conceptual differences yet within the perceived services of metaphors and even if within the concrete case they're judged optimistic or unfavorable. the continued debates mirror those matters particularly sincerely~ specifically that metaphors are judged at the foundation of meant risks they pose and possibilities they provide. those are the standards of review which are evidently depending on the context during which the move of which means happens. Our basic quandary is certainly the move itself~ its clients and its limits. attainable services of metaphors is one method of less than status and elucidating sentiments approximately them. The papers during this quantity illustrate, through fairly assorted examples, 3 simple services of metaphors: illustrative, heuristic~ and constitutive. those capabilities rep resent varied levels of move of which means. Metaphors are illustrative after they are used essentially as a literary equipment, to extend the ability of conviction of a controversy, for instance. even though the adaptation among the illustrative and the heuristic functionality of metaphors isn't really nice, it does exist: metaphors are used for heuristic reasons every time "differences" of which means are hired to open new views and to achieve new insights. relating to "constitutive" metaphors they functionality to really substitute prior meanings by means of new ones. Sabine Maasen in her paper introduces the excellence among move and transforma tion.
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Additional resources for Biology as Society, Society as Biology: Metaphors
34. , p. 195. 35. , p. 194. 36. , 1979, p. 7). 37. D. A. , 1981. 38. , 1980, p. 186. 39. Hans-Jorg Rheinberger, Experiment, Differenz, Schrift. Zur Geschiehte epistemischer Dinge (Marburg/Lahn: Basilisken Presse, 1992); Bruno Latour, "'Postmodern? No, Simply Amodern! Steps Towards an Anthropology of Science," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 21 (1990), 145-171; Timothy Lenoir, "Practice Reason, Context: the Dialogue Between Theory and Experiment" Science in Context 2 (1988), 1, 3-22.
Nature's Art and Nature as Art When Sir Thomas Browne wrote in Religio Medici (1642) that "All things are artificial, for Nature is the Art of God/'IO he deliberately affronted the expectations of his educated readers, who would have habitually opposed art to nature. The locus classicus of this conventional distinction was in Aristotle's Physics (192bI2-34): according to Aristotle, natural objects have an "innate impulse to change" whereas artificial ones do not. If we plant a bed, and the wood from the bed sprouts leaves, it does so qua wood~ not qua bed.
Although these authors certainly did not agree on all points, it is possible to extract a common, minimal position on ensouled nature from their writings. In all cases, their departure point was a dilemma posed by the Cartesian ontology of passive matter and active soul: either the world order arose from the interplay of chance and blind necessity in the manner sketched by Epicurus, or God would be obliged to recreate or at least conserve the world order by direct agency at every instant. The first alternative was rejected out of hand as absurd; the second smacked of a perpetual miracle, sentencing God to perpetual and indecorous labor, and condemning any natural philosophy based on secondary causes to failure from the outset.
Biology as Society, Society as Biology: Metaphors by Sabine Maasen, Everett Mendelsohn, Peter Weingart (auth.), Sabine Maasen, Everett Mendelsohn, Peter Weingart (eds.)